#### Math - 2018-19

# 3.14 - Probability

**The
student will **

**investigate**and**describe**the concept of probability as a measurement of chance and**list**possible outcomes for a single event.

*Adopted: 2016*

### BIG IDEAS

- So that I understand that the likelihood of an event occurring can be described numerically
- So that I can analyze the chance of something happening and make educated predictions
- So that I can figure out all the possible outcomes in a game that I am playing that uses a spinner, a number cube

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

- A spirit of investigation and experimentation should permeate probability instruction, where students are actively engaged in explorations and have opportunities to use manipulatives.
- Investigation of experimental probability is continued at this level through informal activities using materials such as two-colored counters, spinners, and random number cubes.
- Probability is the measurement of chance of an event occurring.
- When a probability experiment has very few trials, the results can be misleading. The more times an experiment is done, the closer the experimental probability comes to the theoretical probability (e.g., a coin lands heads up half of the time).
- Students should have opportunities to describe in informal
terms (e.g.,
*impossible*,*unlikely*,*equally likely, likely*, and*certain*) the degree of likelihood of an event occurring. Activities should include real-life examples. - For any event, such as flipping a coin, spinning a spinner,
or rolling a number cube, the things that can happen are called
*outcomes*. For example, there are two possible outcomes when flipping a coin: the coin can land heads up, or the coin can land tails up; when flipping a coin, each of the outcomes is equally likely. - All possible outcomes of an experiment may be organized in a list, table, or chart.
- Experiences with probability that involve combinations occurs in grade five (e.g., How many different outfits can be made given three shirts and two pants?).

### ESSENTIALS

**The student will use problem solving, mathematical communication, mathematical reasoning, connections, and representations to**

- Define probability as the measurement of chance that an event will happen.
- List all possible outcomes for a single event (e.g., heads and tails are the two possible outcomes of flipping a coin). Limit the number of outcomes to 12 or fewer.
- Describe the degree of likelihood of an outcome
occurring using terms such as
*impossible*,*unlikely*,*equally likely,**likely*, and*certain*.

### KEY VOCABULARY

*Updated: Aug 22, 2018*