Math - 2018-19

3.14 - Probability

The student will 

  • investigate and describe the concept of probability as a measurement of chance and list possible outcomes for a single event.

Adopted: 2016


  • So that I understand that the likelihood of an event occurring can be described numerically
  • So that I can analyze the chance of something happening and make educated predictions
  • So that I can figure out all the possible outcomes in a game that I am playing that uses a spinner, a number cube 


  • A spirit of investigation and experimentation should permeate probability instruction, where students are actively engaged in explorations and have opportunities to use manipulatives.
  • Investigation of experimental probability is continued at this level through informal activities using materials such as two-colored counters, spinners, and random number cubes.
  • Probability is the measurement of chance of an event occurring.
  • When a probability experiment has very few trials, the results can be misleading. The more times an experiment is done, the closer the experimental probability comes to the theoretical probability (e.g., a coin lands heads up half of the time).
  • Students should have opportunities to describe in informal terms (e.g., impossible, unlikely, equally likely, likely, and certain) the degree of likelihood of an event occurring. Activities should include real-life examples.
  • For any event, such as flipping a coin, spinning a spinner, or rolling a number cube, the things that can happen are called outcomes. For example, there are two possible outcomes when flipping a coin: the coin can land heads up, or the coin can land tails up; when flipping a coin, each of the outcomes is equally likely.
  • All possible outcomes of an experiment may be organized in a list, table, or chart.
  • Experiences with probability that involve combinations occurs in grade five (e.g., How many different outfits can be made given three shirts and two pants?).


The student will use problem solving, mathematical communication, mathematical reasoning, connections, and representations to

  • Define probability as the measurement of chance that an event will happen.
  • List all possible outcomes for a single event (e.g., heads and tails are the two possible outcomes of flipping a coin).  Limit the number of outcomes to 12 or fewer.
  • Describe the degree of likelihood of an outcome occurring using terms such as impossible, unlikely, equally likely, likely, and certain.


Updated: Aug 22, 2018