Science - 2018-19
5.7 d - Earth Structure
The student will investigate and understand how Earth’s surface is constantly changing. Key concepts include
d) the basic structure of Earth’s interior;
- describe the structure of Earth in terms of its major layers (crust, mantle, outer core, inner core Bloom's Level: Knowledge
- describe how Earth's interior affects the surface Bloom's Level: Understand
e) changes in Earth’s crust due to plate tectonics;
- apply basic terminology to explain how Earth's surface is constantly changing Bloom's Level: Apply
- differentiate among the three types of plate tectonic boundaries (divergent, convergent, transform) Bloom's Level: Analyze
- explain how the plate movements relate to the changing surface of Earth and the ocean floor Bloom's Level: Understand / Apply
- compare and contrast the origin of earthquakes and volcanoes Bloom's Level: Analyze
- compare and contrast how earthquakes and volcanoes
affect Earth's surface Bloom's Level: Analyze
Earth's geological features have changed over time.
The rock cycle has an impact on the physical characteristics of the Earth.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
- Rocks have
properties that can be observed, tested, and described. Composition, grain size
and textural features, color, and the presence of fossils help with
identification. Classification keys (5.1) can aid this process.
- Rocks move and
change over time due to heat and pressure within Earth and due to weathering,
erosion, and deposition at the surface. These and other processes constantly
change rock from one type to another.
- Depending on how
rocks are formed, they are classified as sedimentary (layers of sediment
cemented together), igneous (melted and cooled, e.g., lava and magma), and
metamorphic (changed by heat and pressure).
evidence indicates Earth is ancient — approximately 4.6 billion years old. The
age of many rocks can be determined very reliably. Fossils provide information
about life and conditions of the past.
evidence indicates that Earth is composed of four concentric layers — crust,
mantle, outer core, and inner core — each with its own distinct
characteristics. The outer two layers are composed primarily of rocky material.
The innermost layers are composed mostly of iron and nickel. Pressure and
temperature increase with depth beneath the surface.
- Earth’s thermal
energy causes movement of material within Earth. Large continent-size blocks
(plates) move slowly about Earth’s surface, driven by that thermal energy.
- Most earthquakes
and volcanoes are located at the boundaries of the plates (faults). Plates can
move together (convergent boundaries), apart (divergent boundaries), or slip
past each other horizontally (transform boundaries,
also called strike-slip or sliding boundaries).
features in the oceans (including trenches and mid-ocean ridges) and on the
continents (mountain ranges, including the Appalachian Mountains) are caused by
current and past plate movements.
- Rocks and other
materials on Earth’s surface are constantly being broken down both chemically
and physically. The products of weathering include clay, sand, rock fragments,
and soluble substances.
- Materials can be
moved by water and wind (eroded) and deposited in new locations as sediment (deposition).
- Humans have
varying degrees of impact on Earth’s surface through their everyday activities.
With careful planning, the impact on the land can be controlled.
In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will
- apply basic
terminology to explain how Earth’s surface is constantly changing.
- draw and label
the rock cycle and describe the major processes and rock types involved.
- compare and
contrast the origin of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
- identify rock
samples (granite, gneiss, slate, limestone, shale, sandstone, and coal), using
a rock classification key.
- make plausible
inferences about changes in Earth over time based on fossil evidence. This
includes the presence of fossils of organisms in sedimentary rocks of Virginia
found in the Appalachian Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain/Tidewater.
- describe the
structure of Earth in terms of its major layers — crust, mantle, and outer core
and inner core — and how Earth’s interior affects the surface.
among the three types of plate tectonic boundaries (divergent, convergent, and transform)
and how these relate to the changing surface of Earth and the ocean floor
- compare and
contrast the origin of earthquakes and volcanoes and how they affect Earth’s
between weathering, erosion, and deposition.
- design an
investigation to locate, chart, and report weathering, erosion, and deposition
at home and on the school grounds. Create a plan to solve erosion and/or
deposition problems that may be found.
- describe how people change Earth’s surface and how
negative changes can be controlled.
Appalachian mountains - a look at rocks exposed in today's Appalachian mountains reveals elongate belts of folded and thrust faulted marine sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks, and slivers of ancient ocean floor strong evidence that these rocks were deformed during plate collision.
boundary - place where two tectonic plates exist
classification key - using characteristics such as composition, grain size, texture, color and presence of fossils, scientists use these characteristics to identify rocks by name
coal - a sedimentary rock; composed of the remains of plant material
composition - what the rock is made of
convergent boundary - plates which move together
crust - the outer layer of the earth; smallest layer
deposition - to place in a new location
divergent boundary - plates which move apart
earthquake - movement of the Earth's crust due to a release of energy; usually found along transform boundaries
erosion - materials MOVED by wind and water
fault - a crack in the Earth's crust; typically form the boundaries between Earth's tectonic plate
fossil - the remains or impression of a prehistoric organism preserved in rock; provides information about life and conditions of the past
gneiss - a metamorphic rock with a banded structure; typically coarse-grained and co
grain size - particle size; the diameter of individual grains of sediment
granite - a coarse-grained igneous rock; thought to be one of the main components of continental crust; used in countertops & building monuments
human impact - ways that humans change Earth and affect the natural balance of life; examples, more farmland needed decreases the number of forests which changes amount of oxygen, habitats, etc.,exhaust and emissions from transportation and industry have fundamentally changed our atmosphere; oceans, lakes, and rivers suffer from our pollution and overfishing; humans' impact on Earth is not always harmful though; parks and wilderness areas allow human use while preserving natural habitats.
igneous - rock which has been melted and cooled; lava and magma are cooled
inference - a tentative explanation based on background knowledge and available data
inner core - center of Earth, made of very hot metal that takes a solid form; densest and innermost layer
iron & nickel
lava - the molten (liquid) rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption
limestone - a type of sedimentary rock which forms in shallow water; made into crushed stone for use in roads and to make cement
magma - molten (liquid) rock material that occurs below Earth's surface; when it erupts onto the surface it is known as "lava".
mantle - largest of the earth's layers; located below the crust
metamorphic - rock type which is created by extreme heat and pressure
mid-ocean ridges - caused by current and past plate movements; plates move apart; divergent plate boundary
mountain ranges - caused by current and past plate movements; formed by volcanoes and uplift of the earth's crust.
outer core - composed of molten (liquid); it contains iron, and when it flows it generates a magnetic field; this is the source of Earth's magnetic field
Ring of Fire- an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean
rock cycle - a continuous process by which rocks are created, changed from one form to another
sandstone - a sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized particles
sediment - solid material that is moved and deposited in a new location; can consist of rocks, minerals, remains of plant and animals ranging in size from a grain of sand to a boulder
sedimentary - layers of sediment cemented together over time
shale -a sedimentary rock that is made up of weathered clay or mud; typically breaks into thin flat pieces; used in paving stones, to make decorative rock walls and make bricks
slate - a metamorphic rock formed from shale; used in roofing and flooring
strata - levels or layers
tectonic plates - large sections of the Earth's surface that shift
texture - the feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface or substance (rock)
thermal energy - is the energy that comes from heat
transform boundary (sliding/strike slip)
volcano - opening or vent in the Earth's crust through which lava, steam, ashes, are expelled.
weathering - to wear away/break down rocks so they can be transported away