Social Studies - 2018-19

VUS.11d - WWII: The Homefront

The student will apply social science skills to understand World War II by

d) evaluating and explaining how the United States mobilized its economic and military resources, including the role of all-minority military units (the Tuskegee Airmen and Nisei regiments) and the contributions of media, minorities, and women to the war effort;


Adopted: 2015

BIG IDEAS

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

World War II was a total war in which all of America’s economic and human resources had to be mobilized to their greatest capacity.

ESSENTIALS

Minority participation 

 African Americans generally served in segregated military units and were assigned to noncombat roles but demanded the right to serve in combat rather than in support roles.

All-minority military units 

 Tuskegee Airmen (African Americans) served in Europe with distinction. 

 Nisei regiments (Japanese Americans) earned a high number of decorations.

Additional contributions of minorities 

 Communication codes of the Navajo were used (oral, not written language; impossible for the Japanese to break). 

 Hispanic Americans also fought, but in nonsegregated units. 

 Minority units suffered high casualties and won numerous unit citations and individual medals for bravery in action.

Economic resources 

 United States government and industry forged a close working relationship to allocate resources effectively. 

 Rationing was used to maintain supply of essential products to the war effort. 

 War bonds and income tax were used to finance the war. 

 Businesses retooled from peacetime to wartime production (e.g., car manufacturing to tank manufacturing).

Human resources 

 More women and minorities entered the labor force. 

 Citizens volunteered in support of the war effort.

Military resources 

 The draft (selective service) was used to provide personnel for the military.

Women on the home front during World War II 

 Women increasingly participated in the workforce to replace men serving in the military (e.g., Rosie the Riveter). 

 Women typically participated in noncombat military roles.

African Americans on the home front during World War II 

 African Americans migrated to cities in search of jobs in war plants. 

 African Americans campaigned for victory in war and equality at home.

Media and communications assistance 

 The United States government maintained strict censorship of reporting of the war. 

 Public morale and ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort. 

 The entertainment industry produced movies, plays, and shows that boosted morale and patriotic support for the war effort as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotypical ways.



KEY VOCABULARY

Terms & Events

WWII

“World” War

Sentiment

military bases

Lend-Lease Act

Axis Powers

Militaristic

Pacific fleet

Embargo

“Date that will live in Infamy”

Defeat Hitler First

Island-hopping

Battles:

El Alamein

Stalingrad

Normandy (D-Day)

Midway

Iwo Jima

Okinawa

“Miracle of Midway”

Casualty

Suez Canal

Atomic Bomb

Segregation

Non-combat roles

Geneva Convention

Bataan Death March

Genocide

Final Solution

Holocaust

Nuremberg Trials

Resource allocation

Mobilization

Nationalism

War bonds

Rationing

Selective Service (draft)

Desegregation

Internment Camps

Internment

Censorship

Public morale

Stereotypes

Propaganda

Iron Curtain

Marshall Plan

Communism

United Nations

People

Harry Truman

Tuskegee Airmen

Nisei Regiments

Minorities: Women, African Americans, Japanese Americans

Rosie the Riveter

Navajo (Signal Corps)

Mexican Americans

POWs

Holocaust victims: Jews, Poles, Slavs ,Gypsies, “Undesirables,”

including homosexuals, mentally ill and political dissidents)

Political Dissents

Places

Poland

Baltic countries

Soviet Union

Germany

North Africa

France

Manchuria

China

Japanese targets: Philippines, Indonesia, Australia and Hawaii

Bermuda and Caribbean

Hitler

Totalitarian Dictatorship

Battle of Britain

Pearl Harbor

Theaters of War:  North Africa, Europe and Pacific

Hiroshima

Nagasaki

Nuremberg

Geneva

Jewish homeland (creation of Israel)

Post WWII Europe

Division of Germany and Berlin 

Updated: May 18, 2018