Social Studies - 2018-19

VUS.8b - Inventors and Innovations

The student will apply social science skills to understand how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by

b) analyzing the factors that transformed the American economy from agrarian to industrial and explaining how major inventions transformed life in the United States, including the emergence of leisure activities;


Adopted: 2015

BIG IDEAS

Unit Themes

Unit Essential Questions

Equality

Is there one American Experience?

Economic Systems 

To what extent does the American economy shape the American experience? 

Reform Movements 

How do people affect change in their society?


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

Economic growth at the turn of the century laid the foundation for modern America.

ESSENTIALS

Technological change spurred growth of industry primarily in northern cities.

Inventions/innovations 

 Corporation (limited liability) 

 Bessemer steel process 

 Light bulb (Thomas Edison) and electricity as a source of power and light 

 Telephone (Alexander Graham Bell) 

 Airplane (Wright brothers) 

 Assembly-line manufacturing (Henry Ford)

Industrial leaders 

 Andrew Carnegie (steel) 

 J. P. Morgan (finance) 

 John D. Rockefeller (oil) 

 Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads)

Reasons for economic transformation 

 Laissez-faire capitalism and special considerations (e.g., land grants to railroad builders) 

 The increasing labor supply (from immigration and migration from farms) 

 America’s possession of a wealth of natural resources and navigable rivers

Emergence of leisure activities 

 Sporting events such as baseball 

 Vaudeville shows 

 Amusement parks and fairs


KEY VOCABULARY

Terms & Events

Transcontinental Railroad

Immigration

Cowboy Era

Cattle drive

Homestead Act of 1862

Mechanical Reaper

Industrialization

Old (pre-1871) and New Immigration (1871-1921)

Textile Industry

Clothing Industry

Steel Mills

Statue of Liberty

Assimilation

Melting Pot

Ethnic neighborhoods

Resentment

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)

Immigration Restriction Act (1921)

Public services

Trolleys

Streetcars

Corporation

Bessemer steel process

Light bulb

Electricity

Telephone

Airplane

Assembly line

Steel

Finance

Oil

Railroads

Laissez-faire capitalism

Big business

People

Cowboys

Poles, Slavs and Italians

Immigrants

Chinese

Alexander Graham Bell

Wright Brothers

Henry Ford

Andrew Carnegie

J.P. Morgan

John D. Rockefeller

Cornelius Vanderbilt

Thomas Edison

Places

Great Plains

Rocky Mountains

Coal Mines

New York City

Ellis Island

Industrial Cities: Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, New York

Tenements

Slums

Updated: May 18, 2018