Social Studies - 2018-19

USII.4b - Growth of Cities

The student will apply social science skills to understand how life changed after the Civil War by

b) explaining the reasons for the increase in immigration, growth of cities, and challenges arising from this expansion;

Adopted: 2015



Population changes, growth of cities, and new inventions produced interaction and often conflict between different cultural groups.

Social and technological changes presented challenges in urban areas.


Reasons for the increase in immigration

 Hope for better opportunities

 Desire for religious freedom

 Escape from oppressive governments

 Desire for adventure

Reasons why cities grew and developed

 Specialized industries, including steel (Pittsburgh) and meatpacking (Chicago)

 Immigration to America from other countries

 Movement of Americans from rural to urban areas for job opportunities

Rapid industrialization and urbanization led to overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and tenements.

Efforts to solve immigration problems

 Settlement houses such as Hull House, founded by Jane Addams

 Political machines (e.g., Boss Tweed) that gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (e.g., jobs, housing)

Discrimination against immigrants

 Chinese

 Irish

 Jewish

 Italian

 Polish

Challenges faced by cities

 Tenements and ghettos

 Political corruption (political machines)


Updated: May 16, 2018