# PH.1 - Scientific Investigation

The student will plan and conduct investigations using experimental design and product design processes. Key concepts include

a)  the components of a system are defined;

b)  instruments are selected and used to extend observations and measurements;

c)  information is recorded and presented in an organized format;

d)  the limitations of the experimental apparatus and design are recognized;

e)  the limitations of measured quantities are recognized through the appropriate use of significant figures or error ranges;

f)  models and simulations are used to visualize and explain phenomena, to make predictions from hypotheses, and to interpret data; and

g)  appropriate technology, including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware, is used for gathering and analyzing data and communicating results.

Bloom's Level:  Create

### BIG IDEAS

• I can explain the parts necessary to make a 10-speed bicycle work.
• I can measure the speed with which I must safely travel to arrive at school on time.
• I can determine how the average nightly amount of sleep I get impacts my academic performance in school.
• I can determine why statistics reported on TV, such in a commercial about medicine, might be faulty.
• I can compare the speed limits in the United States to those in England.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

The concepts developed in this standard include the following:

• Appropriate instruments are used to measure position, time, mass, force, volume, temperature, motion, fields, electric current, and potential.
• No measurement is complete without a statement about its uncertainty.
• Experimental records, including experimental diagrams, data, and procedures, are kept concurrently with experimentation.
• Tables, spreadsheets, and graphs are used to interpret, organize, and clarify experimental observations, possible explanations, and models for phenomena being observed.
• Accuracy is the difference between the accepted value and the measured value.
• Precision is the spread of repeated measurements.
• Results of calculations or analyses of data are reported in appropriate numbers of significant digits.
• Data are organized into tables and graphed when involving dependent and independent variables.

### ESSENTIALS

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a, c) follow safe practices in all laboratory procedures.

draw conclusions and provide reasoning using supporting data.b, g) measure and record position, time, mass, force, volume, temperature, motion, fields, and electric current and potential, using appropriate technology.

d-e)  determine accuracy of measurement by comparing the experimental averages and the theoretical value.

determine precision of measurement using range or standard deviation.

f)  use simulations to model physical phenomena.

### KEY VOCABULARY

Updated: Dec 01, 2017