Science - 2018-19

BIO.4 - Archaea, Bacteria, & Eukarya

The student will investigate and understand life functions of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Key concepts include
a) comparison of their metabolic activities;
b) maintenance of homeostatis;
c) how the structures and functions vary among and within the Eukarya kingdoms of protists, fungi, plants, and animals, including humans;
d) human health issues, human anatomy, and body systems;
e) how viruses compare with organisms;
f) evidence supporting the germ theory of infectious disease.

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

Adopted: 2010


  • The structure and function of organisms are complementary.
  • Living organisms acquire the energy they need for life processes through various metabolic pathways (photosynthesis and cellular respiration).
  • Homeostasis is an organism's ability to remain stable and stay alive by making changes to maintain equilibrium.
  • The human body is a complex organization of many systems, all working together for the overall health of the individual.

  • I can compare and contrast all living things.
  • I can explain why and how cells maintain homeostasis.
  • I can compare and contrast how various organisms, including humans, stay alive.
  • I can explain what is happening inside my body when I get sick.
  • I can explain why I can take an antibiotic for some infection, but not for a viral infection.


  • The organisms that live on Earth today share many structural and metabolic features, including cellular organization, common molecular mechanisms for energy transformation, utilization and maintenance of homeostasis, common genetic code, and mechanisms for the transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
  • The diversity that is evident in the natural world can be studied in the local environment in the context of variations on a common theme.
  • Understanding normal body functioning assists in understanding situations when functioning is impaired.
  • Like other organisms, human beings are composed of groups of cells (tissues, organs, and organ systems) that are specialized to provide the human organism with the basic requirements for life: obtaining food and deriving energy from it, maintaining homeostasis, coordinating body functions, and reproducing.
  • Organ systems function and interact to maintain a stable internal environment that can resist disturbance from within or without (homeostasis).
  • For the body to use food for energy, the food must first be digested into molecules that are absorbed and transported to cells, where the food is used for energy and for repair and growth. To burn food for the release of energy, oxygen must be supplied to cells and carbon dioxide removed. The respiratory system responds to changing demands by increasing or decreasing breathing rate in order to maintain homeostasis. 
  • The circulatory system, which moves all of these substances to or from cells, responds to changing demands by increasing or decreasing heart rate and blood flow in order to maintain homeostasis. 
  • The urinary system disposes of dissolved waste molecules; the intestinal tract removes solid wastes; and the skin and lungs rid the body of thermal energy. 
  • Specialized cells of the immune system and the molecules they produce are designed to protect against organisms and substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise from within. 
  • Communication between cells is required for coordination of body functions. The nerves communicate with electrochemical signals, hormones circulate through the blood, and some cells secrete substances that spread only to nearby cells. 
  • Environmental factors that impact human health include diet, exercise, sleep, stress, toxic substances that enter the body, viruses, and other living organisms that infect the body. 
  • Genetic predisposition towards diseases impacts human health. Awareness of genetic predisposition allows individuals to make lifestyle changes that can enhance quality of life. 
  • Viruses do not share many of the characteristics of living organisms. Viruses are not cells. Basic viral structure consists of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein coat. Viruses can reproduce only inside a living cell, the host cell. 
  • The viral reproductive process includes the following steps:
  • A virus must insert its genetic material into the host cell.
  • The viral genetic material takes control of the host cell and uses it to produce viruses.
  • The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell. 
  • Throughout history, people have created explanations for disease. The introduction of the germ theory led to the understanding that many diseases are caused by microorganisms. Changes in health practices have resulted from the acceptance of the germ theory of disease. 
  • Modern health practices emphasize sanitation, the safe handling of food and water, aseptic techniques to keep germs out of the body, and the development of vaccinations and other chemicals and processes to destroy microorganisms. 


In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a)  compare and contrast the metabolic activities of all domains of life.

b)  identify the proper response an organism would exhibit in response to changes in the environment to maintain homeostasis.

c)  categorize and compare the Eukarya kingdoms based on cell structure, locomotion, reproduction, response to the environment and metabolism.

d)  identify the main factors that affect human health.

     describe the major functions of the human body systems and the role of each in maintaining homeostasis.

e)  compare and contrast a virus and a cell in relation to genetic material and reproduction.

f)  describe how Pasteur’s and Koch’s experimentation and hypotheses led to an understanding of the presence of microorganisms and their relationship to diseases.


prokaryote, bacillus, coccus, spirillum, chemohetertroph, photoheterotroph, photoautotroph, chemoautotroph, obligate aerobe, obligate anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, binary fission, conjugation, endospore, nitrogen fixation, virus, capsid, bacteriophage, lytic infection, lysogenic infectino, prophage, retrovirus, pathogen, vaccine, antibiotic, viroid, prion

Updated: Dec 01, 2017