Reading - 2017-18

Unit 1

Oral Language

The student will expand understanding and use of word meanings.
Bloom's:  Understand, Apply

a)   Increase listening and speaking vocabularies.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply

b)   Use number words.
Bloom's:  Apply

c)   Use words to describe/name people, places, and things.
Bloom's:  Apply, Remember

d)   Use words to describe/name location, size, color, and shape.
Bloom's:  Apply, Remember

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because recognizing and reading number words will help me in math.
  • So that when sorting objects in math, I can better sort by size, color, or shape.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will expand understanding and use of word meanings through cross-curricular activities.
  • Vocabulary growth aids in development of reading and comprehension as students progress in school.
  • Teachers should provide opportunities for students to participate in partner or group activities to use descriptive words (e.g., read and sing number poems and songs).
  • Teacher-initiated activities will expand students’ language by introducing new vocabulary in the context of a variety of texts that reflect the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, history and social science, science, and mathematics, and by modeling ways to participate in discussions about learning.
  • Teacher modeling of the appropriate use of content vocabulary will help students expand their use of word meanings.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that learning new words enhances communication.
  • understand that word choice makes communication clearer.
  • understand that information can be gained by asking about words not understood.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • understand and use number words in conversations, during partner and group activities, and during teacher-directed instruction.
  • use words to describe or name people, places, feelings, and things during partner and group activities and during teacher-directed instruction.
  • use size, shape, color, and spatial words to describe people, places, and things during group or individual activities and during teacher-directed instruction.

KEY VOCABULARY

Number words

Position words (off, on, in, out, over, under, between,beside beside)

Updated: May 23, 2017

The student will demonstrate growth in the use of oral language..
Bloom's: Remember, Apply

a)   Listen to a variety of literary forms, including stories and poems.
Bloom's:  Remember

b)   Participate in a variety of oral language activities including choral and echo speaking and recitation of short poems, rhymes, songs, and stories with repeated word order patterns.
Bloom's:  Apply

c)   Participate in oral generation of language experience narratives.
Bloom's:  Apply

d)   Participate in creative dramatics.
Bloom's:  Apply

e)   Use complete sentences that include subject, verb, and object. 
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because, when I spill my milk at lunch, if I just say “milk”, my teacher won’t understand what I need.  When I say “I’ve spilt my milk,” the teacher will be able to help me clean it up.
  • So that when given a book that repeats, I will recognize the pattern, and reading the book will be easier.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will expand their oral language vocabulary by listening to and participating in a variety of literacy experiences that reflect the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, history and social science, science, and mathematics.
  • By participating in choral and echo speaking, language experience narratives and creative dramatics (e.g., songs, poems, role play, storytelling), students will expand their oral language.
  • A language experience narrative can be produced from any individual or group experience. For an individual language experience narrative the student dictates a story to the teacher.  For the group language experience narrative students contribute ideas to develop sentences for a class story.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that oral language entertains and communicates information.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • listen to texts read aloud and ask and answer questions for further understanding.
  • participate in choral and echo speaking and recitation of short poems, rhymes, songs, and stories with repeated patterns and refrains.
  • generate ideas to develop a group language experience narrative.
  • dictate sentences about a group experience for a group language experience narrative (e.g., a story about a class field trip).
  • dictate an experience or story to create an individual language experience narrative (e.g., a story about a family pet).
  • use drama to retell familiar stories, rhymes, and poems (e.g., storytelling with role play or puppets).
  • participate in creative dramatics, such as classroom songs, plays, skits, and group activities designed to give students frequent opportunities for listening and speaking.
  • use complete sentences that include subject, verb, and object when speaking.

KEY VOCABULARY

oral

poem

rhyme

Updated: Jul 27, 2017

The student will build oral communication skills.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply

a)   Express ideas in complete sentences and express needs through direct requests.  
Bloom's:  Apply        

b)   Begin to initiate conversations.
Bloom's:  Remember, Understand, Apply

c)   Begin to follow implicit rules for conversation, including taking turns and staying on topic.
Bloom's:  Understand

d)   Listen and speak in informal conversations with peers and adults.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply

e)   Participate in group and partner discussions about various texts and topics.
Bloom's:  Understand, Apply

f)   Begin to use voice level, phrasing, and intonation appropriate for various language situations.
Bloom's:  Apply

g)   Follow one and two-step directions.
Bloom's:  Understand

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that I am able to tell my teacher why I am feeling sad.
  • So that my friends and I can talk to each other to solve problems.
  • Because, when I spill my milk at lunch, if I just say “milk”, my teacher won’t understand what I need.  When I say “I’ve spilt my milk,” the teacher will be able to help me clean it up.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will build oral communication skills within a language-rich environment through a variety of experiences.
  • With teacher support students generate how and why questions across curricula and begin to use these questions to guide their search for answers.
  • In various group settings, students should have opportunities to initiate informal conversations with peers and adults, learning and practicing implicit rules for conversation (e.g., voice level and intonation appropriate for specific language situations).

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that conversation is interactive.
  • begin to understand that the setting influences rules for communication.
  • understand that information can be gained by generating questions and seeking answers.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • speak audibly in complete sentences, expressing thoughts, feelings and ideas clearly.
  • verbally express needs through direct requests.
  • participate in a range of collaborative discussions building on others’ ideas and clearly expressing their own (e.g., one-on-one, small group, teacher- led).
  • initiate conversations with peers and teachers in a variety of school settings.
  • listen attentively to others in a variety of formal and informal settings involving peers and adults.
  • participate in partner or group activities, (i.e., conversations, discussions, book chats, retellings of stories, choral speaking, language experience narratives, morning routines, dramatizations and role play).
  • listen to and discuss a variety of texts that reflect the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, history and social science, science, and mathematics.
  • wait for their turn to speak, allowing others to speak without unnecessary interruptions.
  • maintain conversation on topic through multiple exchanges.
  • in group and partner discussions clearly state a thought related to the book or topic being discussed.
  • begin to use voice level, phrasing, and intonation appropriate for the language situation.
  • match language to the purpose, situation, environment, and audience.
  • repeat and follow one-step oral directions.

KEY VOCABULARY

Directions

Updated: May 10, 2017

The student will identify, say, segment, and blend various units of speech sounds.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply, Analyze

a)   Begin to discriminate between spoken sentences, words, and syllables.
Bloom's:  Evaluate

b)   Identify and produce words that rhyme.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • By grouping words with similar sounds, I can use the same process to sort during math time.
  • So that when I am in a conversation, I will know when a person is finished speaking?


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will focus on various units of speech sounds in words.
  • This skill includes an understanding of the hierarchical concepts of sentence, word, syllable, and letter. Consequently, students need to demonstrate the ability to segment a sentence orally into individual words and to segment individual words into individual syllables and sounds.
  • Phonological awareness is the term used to describe a student’s understanding that spoken words consist of sounds. Students who are phonologically aware demonstrate an ability to hear and manipulate the sound structure of language at each of the word, syllable and phoneme (individual sound) levels.
  • Phonological awareness typically progresses in a developmental continuum, (i.e., rhyming → sentence segmenting → syllable blending/segmenting → syllable splitting [onset and rime blending/segmenting] → phoneme blending, segmenting, and manipulating).
  • Students who are phonemically aware are able to attend to the individual phonemes of spoken language by demonstrating the higher-order ability to blend, segment and manipulate them.
  • Students orally blend speech sound units (phonemes) together to make a word (e.g., /m/-/a/-/n/ → man).
  • Students segment spoken words into individual sounds (e.g., man → /m/- /a/- /n/.
  • Understanding rhyme allows students to generate new words from a known word (e.g., if the student knows the word “fun,” then he/she can orally produce the word “run.”) It is more difficult to produce a rhyme than to identify a rhyme when presented orally.
  • Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in spoken language.
  • Through many learning experiences with songs, rhymes, and language play, students will develop the ability to hear, produce, and manipulate phonemes.
  • The ability to segment and blend phonemes facilitates spelling and decoding.
  • Onsets are speech sounds (/b/, /c/, /f/, /h/) before a vowel. Rimes are comprised of the vowel and what follows (e.g., -at, -it, -op). If a one-syllable word begins with a vowel, it has only a rime.  Many words are formed by combining onsets and rimes (bat, bit, but).

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that words are made up of small units of sound and that these sounds can be blended to make a word.
  • understand that words are made up of syllables.
  • understand that a spoken sentence is made up of individual words.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • focus on speech sounds.
  • demonstrate the concept of word by segmenting spoken sentences into individual words.
  • segment a word into individual syllables by clapping hands or snapping fingers.
  • discriminate between large phonological units of running speech, sentences, words, and syllables.
  • identify a word that rhymes with a spoken word.
  • supply a word that rhymes with a spoken word.
  • produce rhyming words and recognize pairs of rhyming words presented orally.
  • generate rhyming words based on a given rhyming pattern.
  • supply an appropriate rhyming word to complete a familiar nursery rhyme or a predictable text with rhyming lines.

KEY VOCABULARY

Beginning

Middle

End


Updated: Aug 29, 2017

Reading

The student will understand how print is organized and read.
Bloom's:  Understand

a)   Hold print materials in the correct position.
Bloom's:  Remember

b)   Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.
Bloom's:  Remember

c)   Distinguish between print and pictures.
Bloom's:  Remember, Analyze

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because, if I read the book backwards or upside down, the letters won’t make words, and the words won’ make sentences that make sense.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will understand book handling skills, directionality of print, and the correspondence of the spoken word to the written word.
  • The ability to match spoken words to print involves developing a student’s concept of word. Instruction may include modeling how print is organized, pointing to words on a page as it is read, and having students “finger-point read” memorized text.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that all print materials in English follow similar patterns.
  • understand that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the spoken and written word.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • hold printed material the correct way.
  • identify the front and back covers of a book.
  • distinguish the title page from all the other pages in a book.
  • turn pages appropriately.          
  • distinguish print from pictures.

KEY VOCABULARY

Front and back book cover

Title page

Print

Pictures

Text


Updated: Aug 30, 2017

The student will demonstrate an understanding that print conveys meaning.
Bloom's:  Understand, Apply

a)   Identify common signs and logos.
Bloom's:  Remember

c)   Read and explain own writing and drawings.
Bloom's:  Remember, Understand, Apply

d)   Read his/her name and read fifteen meaningful, concrete words. 
Bloom's:  Remember, Understand, Apply

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that I know when I read a book, it is trying to teach me, or tell me something.
  • Because when I write a story, I want the reader to understand what I am writing.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will learn that books, environmental print (print seen in one’s environment), and other printed materials convey meaning and provide information for the reader.
  • Teachers should provide a variety of opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding of the constancy of print by drawing pictures and producing their own written messages to communicate ideas and information.
  • These messages may include scribbles, letter approximations, letter strings, and invented spellings.
  • Concrete words are specific words that refer to definite persons, places or things.
  • Students who recognize words automatically spend less time decoding and can pay more attention to comprehending what is being read.
  • Provide opportunities for the student to read his/her name.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that print conveys meaning.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • apply knowledge that print conveys meaning.
  • recognize and identify common signs, logos, and labels.
  • explain that printed material provides information.
  • read and explain their own drawings and writings.
  • locate commonly used words and phrases in familiar text.
  • recognize a selection of high-frequency and sight words as well as read fifteen meaningful, concrete words. (Each student may know a different set of words.)
  • recognize and identify their own first and last names.

KEY VOCABULARY

Print

Sight words

Updated: May 23, 2017

The student will develop an understanding of basic phonetic principles.
Bloom's:  Understand, Apply

a)   Identify and name the uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply

b)   Match consonant, short vowel, and initial consonant digraph sounds to appropriate letters.
Bloom's:  Remember, Understand


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because as I start to read and write more, knowing the sounds of the letters will make it easier.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will develop an understanding of basic phonetic principles.
  • Phonetic skills are the foundation for decoding and encoding words — i.e., they are the basic skills needed to develop fluency and automaticity in reading and writing.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that there is a one-to-one correspondence between spoken and written words.
  • understand that written words are composed of letters that represent specific sounds.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • recognize and name rapidly and with ease uppercase and lowercase letters in sequence and in random order.
  • match uppercase and lowercase letter pairs.
  • produce the usual sounds of consonants, short vowels and initial consonant digraphs.

KEY VOCABULARY

Uppercase

Lower case

Vowel


Updated: Jun 29, 2017

The student will expand vocabulary.
Bloom's:  Apply

b)   Develop vocabulary by listening to a variety of texts read aloud.
Bloom's:  Remember, Understand, Apply

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Sometimes new words look or sound like words you already know which can help me learn what a new word means.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will expand their vocabulary by listening to and participating in a variety of literacy experiences, including, but not limited to, discussion and listening to a variety of texts read aloud.
  • Teachers reading texts aloud provide opportunities for students to have language modeled for them and expose them to new words in order to expand their working vocabularies.
  • Vocabulary growth aids in development of reading and comprehension.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that vocabulary is made up of words and that words have meaning.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing water as a drink and learning the verb water the flowers).
  • sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  • use common adjectives to distinguish objects (e.g., the small red square; the shy white cat). (Students are not required to know the term adjective at this level.)
  • ask and respond to questions about unknown words in a text.
  • identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., places that are loud).
  • use newly learned words in literacy tasks.

KEY VOCABULARY

Synonyms

Antonyms

Updated: May 10, 2017

The student will demonstrate comprehension of fictional texts.

Bloom's:  Understand, Apply

a)   Identify what an author does and what an illustrator does.
Bloom's:  Remember

*b)   Relate previous experiences to what is read.
Bloom's:  Remember, Understand, Apply Analyze

*c)   Use pictures to make predictions.
Bloom's:  Apply, Create


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because, many times, I already know a little information about what we are reading.  If in science, we are reading about the five senses, I can use what I already know about sight to help me better understand.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will understand the elements of a story (characters, setting, problem/solution, events) and begin to analyze these elements for meaning.
  • Students will learn that comprehension is an active process requiring them to use their own experiences and learn new vocabulary in order to get meaning from fictional texts that are read aloud to them.
  • Students should be exposed to and be able to recognize various types of fictional texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that fictional texts tell a story.
  • understand that authors tell stories through words and illustrators tell stories with pictures.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • identify the roles of the author and the illustrator of selected texts.
  • make ongoing predictions based on illustrations and text.
  • describe the relationship between illustration and the story (e.g., what moment in the story does the illustration depict).
  • link knowledge from their own experiences to make sense of and talk about a text.

KEY VOCABULARY

Author

Illustrator

Character

Setting

Events

Predict

Updated: Sep 07, 2017

The student will demonstrate comprehension of nonfiction texts.
Bloom's:  Remember, Understand, Apply

*a)   Use pictures to identify topic and make predictions.
Bloom's:  Apply, Remember, Create


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because when items are grouped (headings are used for grouping information), it makes it easier to understand and remember.  This is similar to identifying the rules for your sorted groups.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard relative to nonfiction is that students will demonstrate comprehension of a variety of texts across the curriculum, including age-appropriate materials that reflect the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, history and social science, science, and mathematics.
  • Students will learn that comprehension is an active process requiring them to use their own experiences and learn new vocabulary in order to get meaning from nonfictional texts that are read aloud to them.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that nonfictional texts provide information.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • make ongoing predictions based on graphics and text.
  • relate pictures and illustrations to the text in which they appear.
  • link knowledge from their own experiences to make sense of and talk about a text.
  • identify the topic of a nonfiction selection.

KEY VOCABULARY

Topic


Updated: Jun 06, 2017

Writing

The student will print in manuscript.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply 

a)   Print uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet independently.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply

b)   Print his/her first and last names.
Bloom's:  Remember Apply

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because, if I write the wrong letter when writing a word, the reader will be confused.
  • So that, I can label my items with my name, and if they get lost people will know to whom it belongs.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will begin developing neat, legible handwriting.
  • Students will learn to print uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
  • Students need explicit, direct instruction to learn to form uppercase and lowercase manuscript letters correctly.
  • Reproducing letters with automaticity assists with learning sounds, spelling words and word recognition.
  • Teaching appropriate pencil grip will assist students with printing in manuscript.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that there are correct ways to write the manuscript letters of the alphabet.
  • understand that their written name provides identification.
  • understand that printing properly formed letters makes manuscript writing legible.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use appropriate pencil grip.
  • print upper- and lower-case letters of the alphabet legibly and independently.
  • use manuscript letter formation.
  • use manuscript number formation.
  • form the letters of and space their first and last names.
  • write their first and last names for a variety of purposes.
  • capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.

KEY VOCABULARY

uppercase

lowercase

print

manuscript

Updated: Nov 16, 2017

The student will write to communicate ideas for a variety of purposes.
Bloom's:  Apply, Create

a)   Differentiate pictures from writing.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply, Analyze

b)   Draw pictures and/or use letters and phonetically spelled words to write about experiences.
Bloom's:  Remember, Apply, Create


Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • So that when I write my assignments in my agenda, my family will be able to read it and help me remember to do my homework.
  • Because when I send invitations to my friends for a party, they need to be able to read when and where the party will be.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will understand that writing is used for a variety of purposes, including sharing events and telling stories (narrative writing), informing others and making reports (informational writing), labeling and making lists (functional writing), and responding to literature.
  • Writing in kindergarten prepares students for more formalized writing styles in subsequent grades.
  • Students will draw upon their growing phonetic knowledge to spell words using letters and beginning consonant sounds when describing pictures or writing about experiences.
  • Beginning writings may include drawings, letter strings, scribbles, letter approximations, and other graphic representations, as well as phonetically spelled words.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that their writing serves a variety of purposes.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • distinguish print from pictures.
  • write daily for a variety of purposes (e.g., practicing formation of alphabet letters, labeling, and journal writing).
  • write on assigned and/or self-selected topics.
  • use dictation, and drawing to compose informative/explanatory texts that introduce a topic (what they are writing about), state an opinion or some facts and provide some information (e.g., My favorite book is …).
  • use dictation, and drawing to narrate an event..

KEY VOCABULARY

write 

draw

describe

Updated: May 23, 2017

The student will use available technology for reading and writing.
Bloom's:  Apply

Adopted: 2010

BIG IDEAS

  • Because it can allow for me share my writing with others.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • The intent of this standard is that students will use available technology for reading and writing.

ESSENTIALS

All students should

  • understand that technology provides a way to interact with print.

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to

  • use available digital tools for reading and writing.
  • ask and respond to questions about material presented through various media formats.
  • share their writing with others.

KEY VOCABULARY

technology

reading 

writing

Updated: Jun 06, 2017