Science - 2017-18

ES.8 c-f - Freshwater Resources

The student will investigate and understand how freshwater resources are influenced by geologic processes and the activities of humans. Key concepts include

c) relationships between groundwater zones, including saturated and unsaturated zones, and the water table;
d) identification of sources of fresh water including rivers, springs, and aquifers, with reference to the hydrologic cycle;
e) dependence on freshwater resources and the effects of human usage on water quality; and
f) identification of the major watershed systems in Virginia, including the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

Adopted: 2010


  • The surface of Earth has identifiable major features-- land masses, oceans, rivers, lakes, mountains, canyons, and glaciers.
  • Liquid water is in great abundance makes Earth unique among the planets of the solar system.
  • Water cycles through the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geopshere, and biosphere.

  • I can explain how events such as the train derailment in 2014 impact the drinking water supply.
  • I can determine where a message in a bottle may end up based on which local water source I put it in.


  • Earth’s fresh water supply is finite. Geological processes, such as erosion, and human activities, such as waste disposal, can pollute water supplies. 
  • Water is continuously being passed through the hydrologic cycle. Fresh water is necessary for survival and most human activities.
  • The three major regional watershed systems in Virginia lead to the Chesapeake Bay, the North Carolina sounds, and the Gulf of Mexico. 


In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

c) interpret a simple groundwater diagram showing the zone of aeration, the zone of saturation, the water table, and an aquifer.

     analyze the presence of groundwater in various types of rock terrains, including areas found in each of the physiographic provinces of Virginia.

     analyze the relationship between salt-water intrusion in the ground water in certain areas of eastern Virginia and buried crater structures.

d) interpret a simple hydrologic cycle diagram, including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff.

f) locate the major Virginia watershed systems on a map (Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and North Carolina sounds).


water cycle, precipitation, groundwater, tributary, watershed, divide, habitat, reservoir, wetland, permeable, impermeable, saturated zone, water table, unsaturated zone, spring, aquifer, artesian well, geyser, irrigation, conservation, water pollution, pollutant, point source, nonpoint source, water quality, concentration, pH, hardness, coliform, filtration, coagulation

Updated: Nov 28, 2017