# ES.1 - Scientific Investigation & Measurement

The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
a) volume, area, mass, elapsed time, direction, temperature, pressure, distance, density, and changes in elevation/depth are calculated utilizing the most appropriate tools;
b) technologies, including computers, probeware, and geospatial technologies, are used to collect, analyze, and report data and to demonstrate concepts and simulate experimental conditions;
c) scales, diagrams, charts, graphs, tables, imagery, models, and profiles are constructed and interpreted;
d) maps and globes are read and interpreted, including location by latitude and longitude;
e) variables are manipulated with repeated trials; and
f) current applications are used to reinforce Earth science concepts.

Bloom's Levels:  Create, Apply

### BIG IDEAS

• Earth scientists use repeatable observations and testable ideas to understand and explain our planet.

• I can measure items in my classroom and the world around me.
• I can use technology to determine the quickest route from my school to the mall.
• I can make a scale model of my neighborhood.
• I can use a map to determine the running route with the fewest hills.
• I can verify my results again and again to be sure that I am correct in my findings.
• I can show others how Earth Science impacts the world around us.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

• Density expresses the relationship between mass and volume.
• Information and data collected can be organized and expressed in the form of charts, graphs, and diagrams.
• Scale relates to actual distance.
• Topographic maps and satellite imagery are two-dimensional models that provide information defining three-dimensional landforms. They contain extensive information related to geographic as well as human structures and changes to the land surface, and are useful in understanding geologic processes.
• Grid systems of latitude and longitude are used to define locations and directions on maps, globes, and charts.

### ESSENTIALS

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

a)  measure mass and volume of regular and irregular shaped objects and materials using common laboratory tools, including metric scales and graduated cylinders.

apply the concept of mass per unit volume and calculate density without being given a formula.

c)  record data in systematic, properly-labeled multicell tables, and using data, construct and interpret continuous line graphs, frequency distributions, bar graphs, and other explicating graphics that present a range of parameters, relationships, and pathways.

interpret data from a graph or table that show changes in temperature or pressure with depth or altitude.

d)  interpret landforms, water features, map scale, horizontal distance between points, elevation and elevation changes, latitude and longitude, human-made structures and other pertinent features on 7.5 minute quadrangles on topographic maps.

construct profiles from topographic contours.

use latitude and longitude down to minutes, with correct north-south and east-west designations, to locate points on a map.

### KEY VOCABULARY

area, constant, control, data, density, dependent variable, hypothesis, independent variable, length, mass, science, scientific method, metric system, temperature, variable, weight, theory, scientific law

Updated: Nov 28, 2017