Math - 2017-18

A.4abdf and *A.4ace - Linear Equations

A.4    The student will solve multistep linear and quadratic equations in two variables, including

a)  solving literal equations (formulas) for a given variable;

b)  justifying steps used in simplifying expressions and solving equations, using field properties and axioms of equality that are valid for the set of real numbers and its subsets;

d)  solving multistep linear equations algebraically and graphically;

f)  solving real-world problems involving equations and systems of equations.

Graphing calculators will be used both as a primary tool in solving problems and to verify algebraic solutions.

A.4  The student will solve

a)  multistep linear equations in one variable algebraically;

c)  literal equations for a specified variable;

e)  practical problems involving equations and systems of equations.


Bloom's Level: Apply, Evaluate


Adopted: 2009

BIG IDEAS

  • I can find how far and how fast a bus travels, the number and combinations of fruits that can be purchased, and how long it takes to drain a swimming pool. 
  • I can translate real-life situations into equations to find unknown values.
  • I will be able to write symbolic representations of the way numbers behave and will know that in order to maintain equality, an operation performed on one side must also be performed on the other side.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • A solution to an equation is the value or set of values that can be substituted to make the equation true.
  • The solution of an equation in one variable can be found by graphing the expression on each side of the equation separately and finding the x-coordinate of the point of intersection. 
  • Real-world problems can be interpreted, represented, and solved using linear and quadratic equations.
  • The process of solving linear and quadratic equations can be modeled in a variety of ways, using concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations.
  • Properties of real numbers and properties of equality can be used to justify equation solutions and expression simplification.
  • The zeros or the x-intercepts of the quadratic function are the real root(s) or solution(s) of the quadratic equation that is formed by setting the given quadratic expression equal to zero.
  • A system of linear equations with exactly one solution is characterized by the graphs of two lines whose intersection is a single point, and the coordinates of this point satisfy both equations.
  • A system of two linear equations with no solution is characterized by the graphs of two lines that are parallel.
  • A system of two linear equations having infinite solutions is characterized by two graphs that coincide (the graphs will appear to be the graph of one line), and the coordinates of all points on  the line satisfy both equations.
  • Systems of two linear equations can be used to model two real-world conditions that must be satisfied simultaneously.
  • Equations and systems of equations can be used as mathematical models for real-world situations.
  • Set builder notation may be used to represent solution sets of equations.

2016 VDOE Curriculum Framework - AI.4 Understanding

·  A solution to an equation is the value or set of values that can be substituted to make the equation true.

·  Each point on the graph of a linear or quadratic equation in two variables is a solution of the equation.

·  Practical problems may be interpreted, represented, and solved using linear and quadratic equations.

·  The process of solving linear and quadratic equations can be modeled in a variety of ways, using concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations.

·  Properties of real numbers and properties of equality are applied to solve equations.

·  Properties of Real Numbers:

­  Associative Property of Addition

­  Associative Property of Multiplication

­  Commutative Property of Addition

­  Commutative Property of Multiplication

­  Identity Property of Addition (Additive Identity)

­  Identity Property of Multiplication (Multiplicative Identity)

­  Inverse Property of Addition (Additive Inverse)

­  Inverse Property of Multiplication (Multiplicative Inverse)

­  Distributive Property

·  Properties of Equality:

­  Multiplicative Property of Zero

­  Zero Product Property

­  Reflexive Property

­  Symmetric Property

­  Transitive Property of Equality

­  Addition Property of Equality

­  Subtraction Property of Equality

­  Multiplication Property of Equality

­  Division Property of Equality

­  Substitution

·  Quadratic equations in one variable may be solved algebraically by factoring and applying properties of equality or by using the quadratic formula over the set of real numbers (Algebra I) or the set of complex numbers (Algebra II).

·  Literal equations include formulas.

·  A system of linear equations with exactly one solution is characterized by the graphs of two lines whose intersection is a single point, and the coordinates of this point satisfy both equations.

·  Equations and systems of equations can be used as mathematical models for practical situations.

·  Solutions and intervals may be expressed in different formats, including set notation or using equations and inequalities.  

-  Examples may include:

  Equation/ Inequality

  Set Notation

x = 3

{3}

x = 3 or x = 5

{3, 5}

y≥ 3

{y: y ≥ 3}

Empty (null) set ∅

{ }


ESSENTIALS

The student will use problem solving, mathematical communication, mathematical reasoning, connections, and representations to

A.4b1  Solve equations using the field properties of the real numbers and properties of equality to justify the solution.

·  A.4aApply the properties of real numbers and properties of equality to simplify expressions and solve equations.

A.4d1  Solve multi-step linear equations in one variable.

·  A.4aSolve multistep linear equations in one variable algebraically.

A.4d2  Determine if a linear equation in one variable has one, an infinite number, or no solutions.

·  A.4aDetermine whether a linear equation in one variable has one, an infinite number, or no solutions.

A.4a2  Confirm algebraic solutions to linear equations using a graphing calculator.

A.4a1  Solve a literal equation (formula) for a specific variable.

·  A.4cSolve a literal equation for a specified variable.  

·  A.4eSolve practical problems involving equations and systems of equations


KEY VOCABULARY

literal equation (formula), expression, equation, properties of real numbers, properties of equality, quadratic equation, quadratic function, quadratic expression, roots, zeros, linear equation, system, substitution, elimination, ordered pair, coordinate, intersection, intercepts, solution, infinite, parallel, coincide, simultaneous

Updated: Oct 27, 2017