# PS.10 b, d - Newton's Laws

The student will investigate and understand the scientific principles of work, force, and motion. Key concepts include

b) Newton’s laws of motion; and

d) technological applications of work, force, and motion.

Bloom's Levels:  Analyze; Understand

### BIG IDEAS

• Motion is a key characteristic of all matter that can be observed, described, and measured.
• Energy change can be understood in terms of forces- pushes or pulls.
• Machines make complicated tasks easier to perform.

### UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

• Newton’s three laws of motion describe the motion of all common objects.
• Mass and weight are not equivalent. Mass is the amount of matter in a given substance. Weight is a measure of the force due to gravity acting on a mass. Weight is measured in newtons.
• A simple machine is a device that makes work easier. Simple machines have different purposes: to change the effort needed (mechanical advantage), to change the direction or distance through which the force is applied, to change the speed at which the resistance moves, or a combination of these. Due to friction, the work put into a machine is always greater than the work output. The ratio of work output to work input is called efficiency.

### ESSENTIALS

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will

b) identify situations that illustrate each Law of Motion.

d) explain how the concepts of work, force, and motion apply to everyday uses and current technologies.

a-d) differentiate between mass and weight.

### KEY VOCABULARY

speed, velocity, acceleration, Newton's Laws of Motion, work, force, mechanical advantage, efficiency, power, mass, weight, simple machines, compound machine

Updated: Nov 24, 2017