Math - 2017-18

6.1 and *6.1 - Ratios

6.1    The student will describe and compare data, using ratios, and will use appropriate notations, such as  a/b, a to b, and a:b.

6.1    The student will represent relationships between quantities using ratios, and will use appropriate notations, such as a/b , a to b, and a:b.

Bloom's Level:  Understand, Analyze, Apply

Adopted: 2009

BIG IDEAS

  • I can figure miles per gallon, cost per unit, and estimate the size of an animal population when the entire population cannot be counted.
  • I will be able to solve practical problems with proportional reasoning.


UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD

  • A ratio is a comparison of any two quantities. A ratio is used to represent relationships within and between sets.
  • A ratio can compare part of a set to the entire set (part-whole comparison).
  • A ratio can compare part of a set to another part of the same set (part-part comparison).
  • A ratio can compare part of a set to a corresponding part of another set (part-part comparison).
  • A ratio can compare all of a set to all of another set (whole-whole comparison).
  • The order of the quantities in a ratio is directly related to the order of the quantities expressed in the relationship. For example, if asked for the ratio of the number of cats to dogs in a park, the ratio must be expressed as the number of cats to the number of dogs, in that order.
  • A ratio is a multiplicative comparison of two numbers, measures, or quantities.
  • All fractions are ratios and vice versa.
  • Ratios may or may not be written in simplest form.
  • Ratios can compare two parts of a whole.
  • Rates can be expressed as ratios.

2016 VDOE Curriculum Framework - 6.1 Understanding

·  A ratio is a comparison of any two quantities. A ratio is used to represent relationships within a quantity and between quantities. Ratios are used in practical situations when there is a need to compare quantities.

·  In the elementary grades, students are taught that fractions represent a part-to-whole relationship. However, fractions may also express a measurement, an operator (multiplication), a quotient, or a ratio. Examples of fraction interpretations include:

-  Fractions as parts of wholes:    represents three parts of a whole, where the whole is separated into four equal parts.

-  Fractions as measurement: the notation  can be interpreted as three one-fourths of a unit.

-  Fractions as an operator:  represents a multiplier of three-fourths of the original magnitude.

-  Fractions as a quotient:  represents the result obtained when three is divided by four.

-  Fractions as a ratio:   is a comparison of 3 of a quantity to the whole quantity of 4.

·  A ratio may be written using a colon (a:b), the word to (a to b), or fraction notation .

·  The order of the values in a ratio is directly related to the order in which the quantities are compared.

-  Example: In a certain class, there is a ratio of 3 girls to 4 boys (3:4).

Another comparison that could represent the relationship between these quantities is the ratio of 4 boys to 3 girls (4:3).  Both ratios give the same information about the number of girls and boys in the class, but they are distinct ratios.  When you switch the order of comparison (girls to boys vs. boys to girls), there are different ratios being expressed.

·  Fractions may be used when determining equivalent ratios. 

-  Example: The ratio of girls to boys in a class is 3:4, this can be interpreted as:

number of girls = ∙ number of boys.

In a class with 16 boys, number of girls = ∙ (16) = 12 girls.

-  Example: A similar comparison could compare the ratio of boys to girls in the class as being 4:3, which can be interpreted as:

number of boys = ∙ number of girls.

In a class with 12 girls, number of boys = ∙ (12) = 16 boys.

·  A ratio can compare two real-world quantities (e.g., miles per gallon, unit rate, and circumference to diameter of a circle). 

·  Ratios may or may not be written in simplest form.

·  A ratio can represent different comparisons within the same quantity or between different quantities.

Ratio

Comparison

part-to-whole

(within the same quantity)

compare part of a whole to the entire whole

part-to-part

(within the same quantity)

compare part of a whole to another part of the same whole

whole-to-whole

(different quantities)

compare all of one whole to all of another whole

part-to-part

(different quantities)

compare part of one whole to part of another whole

-  Examples: Given Quantity A and Quantity B, the following comparisons could be expressed.

Ratio

Example

Ratio Notation(s)

part-to-whole

(within the same quantity)

compare the number of unfilled stars to the total number of stars in Quantity A

3:8; 3 to 8; or

part-to-part 1

(within the same quantity)

compare the number of unfilled stars to the number of filled stars in Quantity A

3:5 or 3 to 5

whole-to-whole 1 (different quantities)

compare the number of stars in Quantity A to the number of stars in Quantity B

8:5 or 8 to 5

part-to-part 1
(different quantities)

compare the number of unfilled stars in Quantity A to the number of unfilled stars in Quantity B

3:2 or 3 to 2

1Part-to-part comparisons and whole-to-whole comparisons are ratios that are not typically represented in fraction notation except in certain contexts, such as determining whether two different ratios are equivalent.


ESSENTIALS

  • What is a ratio?
    A ratio is a comparison of any two quantities. A ratio is used to represent relationships within a set and between two sets.  A ratio can be written using fraction form (2/3), a colon (2:3), or the word to (2 to 3).

The student will use problem solving, mathematical communication, mathematical reasoning, connections, and representations to

6.11  Describe a relationship within a set by comparing part of the set to the entire set.

6.12  Describe a relationship between 2 sets by comparing part of 1 set to a corresponding of another set.

6.13  Describe a relationship between 2 sets by comparing all of 1 set to all of the other set.

6.14  Describe a relationship within a set by comparing 1 part of the set to another part of the same set.

·  6.11  Represent a relationship between two quantities using ratios. 

6.15  Represent a relationship in words that makes a comparison by using the notations a/b, a:b, and a to b.

·  6.12  Represent a relationship in words that makes a comparison by using the notations, a:b, and a to b.

6.16  Create a relationship in words for a given ratio expressed symbolically.

·  6.13  Create a relationship in words for a given ratio expressed symbolically.


KEY VOCABULARY

ratio, notation, relationship, corresponding parts, simplest form, comparison, symbolically, fraction, numerator, denominator, rate, equivalent

Updated: Oct 27, 2017